The ERA-NET NEURON supports basic, clinical and translational research in the diverse fields of disease-related neuroscience. Ministries and funding organisations across Europe, Israel, Turkey and Canada have joined forces to conquer diseases of the brain and the nervous system. According to estimates by the World Health Organisation, more than one billion people suffer from them. Brain diseases are major causes for impaired quality of life. They produced costs of € 800 billion in 2010 and are an increasingly heavy burden on our society. Not just for the patients, but for their families too. In many cases the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood and no curative treatment is available. Thus, neuroscience research and its translation into diagnostic and therapeutic measures are of highest priority for the well-being of patients and their families. The ERA-NET NEURON aims to support research directed at a better understanding of brain diseases and their progression in order to pave the way for new or improved routes for diagnosis and therapy.